Which Bible Version Is Best?
http://www.christianbiblereference.org/faq_kjv.htm
Frequently Asked Questions
Which Bible version should I buy?
Has God protected the King James Version from errors?
Is the King James Version the only Bible I should read?
Is the King James Version more accurate than modern translations?
Why are some verses left out of modern Bible translations?
Why are Bible publishers allowed to copyright God's Word?
Have modern Bibles changed God's Word?
Background
The Old Testament
The Old Testament (OT) of the Bible was originally written in the Hebrew language with
a few sections written in the Aramaic language. The OT contains the sacred writings of
the Jews and contains books of the Law, history of Israel, wisdom, and prophecy. The
events of the OT (excluding Genesis 1-11) occurred roughly between 1800 B.C. and 400
B.C. A Greek translation of the OT, called the Septuagint, was produced between 200 and
100 B.C. for the benefit of Greek-speaking Jews in Alexandria, Egypt.
The Apocrypha
The Apocrypha, a group of fifteen late OT books, was written during the period 170 B.C.
to 70 A.D. These Jewish books were included in many versions of the Septuagint in
circulation as the New Testament was being formed, but they were excluded from the
official canon of Judaism, established about 100 A.D. Today, the books of the Apocrypha
are included in Catholic versions of the OT, but not in most Protestant versions. These
books are also known as the deuterocanonical books.
The New Testament
The people of first century Palestine, including Jesus, spoke the Aramaic language.
However, early Christian writings were written entirely in Greek, the universal language
of the Roman Empire at that time. The books of the New Testament (NT) were written
during the period 50 A.D. to 100 A.D. The early church leaders gradually assembled
these writings into what is now known as the New Testament. They included books they
believed were written by eyewitnesses to the events narrated, while rejecting many other
early Christian writings. Eventually, the 27 books which form the present New
Testament, along with the OT books, became the Christian Bible as we know it today.
The New Testament canon was formally adopted by the Synod of Carthage in 397 A.D.
The Vulgate
During the early centuries A.D., Latin replaced Greek as the language of the Roman
Empire. In 405, a Latin translation of the Old and New Testaments was completed. This
version, known as the Vulgate, became the standard Bible of Christianity for many
centuries.
Bible Manuscripts
None of the original writings of the OT or NT still exist. They have long since been lost
to decay, fires, wars and other causes. However, they were copied and recopied many
times over. Bible copies were made entirely by hand until printing was invented in 15th
century. As a result, there are many small variations among the many ancient Bible
manuscripts still in existence.
Many additional ancient Bible manuscripts and fragments have been discovered since the
late 1800's. The scientific methods of paleography and radiocarbon dating can now
determine approximately when the thousands of different manuscripts were written. This
new knowledge has enabled newer translations based on the oldest and best ancient
Hebrew and Greek manuscripts.
Translations
The complete Bible has been translated into over 500 languages, and portions exist in
almost 3000 languages and dialects. The first English language version of the full Bible
was John Wycliffe's translation of the Vulgate in 1384. Several other English versions
followed, including the Great Bible (1535) and Bishop's Bible (1568).
The King James Version
King James I of England commissioned a new translation in 1604. The work was done by
47 Bible scholars of the Church of England and completed in 1611. It was officially
known as the Authorized Version (AV), but it was also known informally as the King
James Bible or King James Version (KJV). The KJV is considered a masterpiece of
English literature, both scholarly and stylistically. The KJV, itself, has been updated
several times: in 1629, 1638, 1762, and 1769. Quotations from the KJV are found
throughout English literature and music. The archaic language and unfamiliar syntax of
the KJV sound majestic and give an impression of authority and originality.
Is the KJV the Best Version?
Some people believe the KJV is the most accurate or only authentic version of the Bible.
Some believe the Hebrew and Greek manuscripts the KJV translators used were faithfully
preserved by God or are the most accurate for some other reason. Others say the
translators of all later versions were biased or incompetent in one way or another. Still
others say the KJV is a literal and accurate translation while later versions were rewritten
to suit the biases of the publishers. Despite some sentiment favoring the KJV, the great
majority of Bible scholars and Christians reject all these objections as being based on
faulty facts and reasoning, and they do not consider the KJV to be more accurate or more
sacred than other translations.
Disadvantages
The team of 47 scholars who translated the KJV did an excellent job. However, the
English language has changed a lot in the more than 400 years since it was published.
The vocabulary is outdated. Pronouns and verb tenses have changed since then. Many
KJV words and phrases, such as Lord of hosts, sabaoth, emerods and concupiscence,
would not be meaningful to most people today. Worse, many other KJV words, such as
charity, trespass, profit, cousin, and remission, have different primary meanings today
than they did in 1611, and could mislead the reader. As a result, many people find the
KJV quite difficult to read and understand.
Modern Bible Versions
Twentieth century developments in archaeology, scientific dating methods and Biblical
scholarship have yielded new knowledge about the Bible. Modern Bibles are translated
from a set of ancient Hebrew and Greek manuscripts that is believed to be older and
closer to the originals than those that were used as the basis for the KJV.
Advantages of Modern Translations
Although the newer translations are believed to be more accurate than the KJV, the
differences are minor. No significant changes of belief or interpretation would result from
the many minor corrections. The main advantage of the modern translations is that they
are written in modern English so the reader will not be mystified or misled by the archaic
English of the KJV. The mainstream modern Bible versions have been translated by
teams of highly qualified Bible scholars who have diligently done their very best to
convey the true meaning of the ancient Hebrew and Greek manuscripts to the modern
reader. These modern translations have been adopted by many churches, both Protestant
and Catholic, for use in worship.
Omitted Verses
It is often pointed out that modern translations omit a few of the verses found in the KJV,
and this is sometimes believed to be an attempt to distort the Bible's teachings. However,
the real reason is that certain verses are not found in the oldest and best Bible
manuscripts. Thus, they are omitted to accurately preserve the original Bible text. (The
chapter and verse numbers were added to the Bible in the Middle Ages; they were not
part of the original Bible manuscripts. Thus, an omitted verse does not mean that
something was omitted from the original writings.)
Some of these extra verses were added to certain manuscript copies as margin notes or as
prayers for use in public worship. Those manuscripts were then copied and recopied
without making it clear that the extra verses were later additions. The most famous
example is the doxology, "For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever.
Amen." that the KJV adds to the Lord's Prayer in Matthew 6:13. That phrase is not found
in any of the oldest manuscripts of Matthew.
Gender-Neutral Language
Another objection to some modern versions, such as the New Revised Standard Version
(NRSV) and the 2011 New International Version (NIV), is the use of "gender-neutral" or
"gender-inclusive" language. The change in translation is because of a change in the way
English is commonly spoken. It is traditional in English to use masculine words ("a man,"
"he," "him") as a generic form to include both sexes, but the modern trend is to use a
gender-neutral expression ("a person," "he or she," "him or her," "they," "them") when
both sexes are included.
Thus, Romans 3:28 has traditionally been translated into English as "… a man is justified
by faith …" However, the original Greek word anthropos means "human being" and
applies equally to both sexes. So, the NRSV and NIV have translated this verse as "… a
person is justified by faith …" to convey the inclusive nature of the original Greek word.
The KJV translates John 13:20 as, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth
whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me."
The NRSV changes the "he" to "whoever" to show that the original text applied equally
to men and women, but the "him" that applies to God is left as masculine: "Very truly, I
tell you, whoever receives one whom I send receives me; and whoever receives me
receives him who sent me."
Publishers of gender-neutral Bibles are quick to point out that these are not "politically
correct" or "feminist" Bibles. They have used gender-neutral language only where it
would have been understood that way in the original Hebrew and Greek languages.
Copyright
Most of the modern Bible versions are protected by copyright law. Some people question
whether it is right to copyright God's Word. However, the experts who do the work have
bills to pay and families to support like everyone else. Their salaries are paid from sales
of their work. Without copyright protection, unscrupulous publishers could copy and sell
a Bible version without paying any of the proceeds to the men and women who did the
work.
Bible Versions
Here is a list of some excellent modern translations, in alphabetical order:
The New American Bible (NAB) is the official Catholic version of the Bible in the United
States, and it is written in very modern English. The books of the Apocrypha are
incorporated into the Old Testament of Catholic Bibles. Otherwise, this translation does
not differ significantly from modern Protestant Bibles.
The New American Standard Bible (NASB), published in 1971, is a scholarly update of
the 1901 American Standard Version. Sponsored by the Lockman Foundation, the
translators used the best available Greek and Hebrew texts as a guide.
The New International Version of the Bible (NIV), a completely new translation of ancient
Greek and Hebrew texts sponsored by the New York International Bible Society, was
published in 1978 and revised in 2011. Its clear, direct modern English makes it easy to
read and understand. The 2011 edition incorporated gender-neutral language.
The New Revised Standard Version Bible (NRSV), published by The National Council of
Churches in 1989, is an update of the highly regarded Revised Standard Version of 1952.
The language is very modern, but the style is more traditional than the NIV. The NRSV
uses gender-neutral language in places where it would have been understood that way in
the original language. The NRSV is also available in Catholic editions and Anglicized
Editions.
The Revised English Bible (REB) is a British edition published by Oxford University
Press in 1989. The translators have written in a style suitable for use in worship, while
maintaining intelligibility for people of a wide range of ages and backgrounds.
Paraphrased Versions
In addition to the translations above, there are a number of paraphrased Bible versions
which were translated "thought-by-thought" instead of more literally. The translators have
written in a style that is thoroughly modern and these Bibles are suitable for all ages and
very easy to understand. By nature, though, these paraphrased versions involve some
interpretation that is subject to debate:
The Living Bible (TLB), published in 1971, is a popular paraphrased version written by
Kenneth N. Taylor, who began this version to help his own children understand the New
Testament Letters of Paul.
The New Living Translation (NLT), published in 1996, is a thought-by-thought translation
by 90 Bible scholars from various theological backgrounds and denominations. It is
similar to The Living Bible, but the language is more traditional.
Study Bibles
There are also several Bible editions that include helpful study notes:
The Catholic Study Bible Second Edition contains the complete NAB Bible plus a
Reading Guide for each book, study notes and short essays to help with understanding.
Life Application Study Bible is available in NIV, NLT and NASB editions. It contains the
complete Bible plus extensive study notes emphasizing application to everyday life.
NLT Study Bible contains the complete NLT Bible plus extensive study notes to help with
understanding.
Related articles:
How to Study the Bible,
Summary and History of the Bible,
What Is the Difference Between Protestant and Catholic Bibles?